METU Turkish Discourse Resource Project

Principal Investigator:

Deniz Zeyrek


Supported by the Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey (TUBITAK), the METU - Turkish Discourse Bank (METU-TDB) project aims to develop a corpus annotated with information related to discourse structure of Turkish. As part of this project, the team will investigate the nature of Turkish discourse structure to the extent that they are represented by connectives such as "çünkü" (because), "ama" (but) and "aksi halde" (otherwise). In the life time of the project, a 500.000-word subcorpus of METU Turkish Corpus will be annotated with respect to connectives, their senses and arguments. As there is no current resource annotated with discourse structure information for Turkish available, the resulting annotated data is expected to become an important resource for future studies on Turkish discourse structure. The first version of the TDB will be available in March 2011.

The project website can be found at

Publications by Group Members


Zeyrek, D., Demirşahin, I., Sevdik-Çallı, Ayışığı, B., Çakıcı, R. (2013). Turkish Discourse Bank: Porting a discourse annotation style to a morphologically rich languageDialogue & Discourse. Vol. 4, No. 2: 174-184.
Demirşahin, I., Öztürel, A., Bozşahin, C., Zeyrek, D. (2013). Applicative structures and immediate discourse in the Turkish Discourse Bank. Proc. of the 7th Linguistic Annotation Workshop & Interoperability with Discourse (pages 122-130). Aug. 8-9 2013, Sofia, Bulgaria.


Zeyrek, D., Turan Ü. D., Demirşahin I., & Çakıcı R. (2012). Differential properties of three discourse connectives in Turkish: A corpus-based analysis of Fakat, Yoksa, Ayrıca. In A. Benz, M. Stede, & P. Kühnlein (eds.). Constraints in Discourse 3. Representing and inferring discourse structure. (pp. 183-206) John Benjamins Publishing Company.
Demirşahin, Işın, Yalçınkaya İ., & Zeyrek D. (2012). Pair annotation: Adaption of Pair Programming to Corpus Annotation. Proceedings. Association of Computational Linguistics, Proceedings of the Sixth Linguistic Annotation Workshop (pp. 31-39).
Şirin, U., Çakıcı R., & Zeyrek D. (2012). METU Turkish Discourse Bank Browser. Istanbul: LREC 2012. 2808-28012.
Demirşahin, Işın, Çallı A. B. S., Balaban H. Ö., Çakıcı R., & Zeyrek D. (2012). Turkish Discourse Bank: Ongoing Developments. Proceedings, Workshop on Turkic Languages, Istanbul: LREC 2012.


Zeyrek, D., Demirşahin Işın, Çallı A. B. S., Balaban H. Ö., Yalçınkaya İ., & Turan Ü. D. (2010).  The annotation scheme of the Turkish Discourse Bank and an evaluation of inconsistent annotations. Proceedings of the Fourth Linguistic Annotation Workshop. 282–289.
Aktaş, B., Bozşahin C., & Zeyrek D. (2010). Discourse Relation Configurations in Turkish and an Annotation Environment. ACL 2010. LAW IV. Fourth Linguistic Annotation Workshop.Proceedings of the Workshop (pp. 202-206).15-16 July 2010, Uppsala, Sweden.
Zeyrek, D., Turan Ü. D., & Bozşahin C. (2009).  The role of annotation in understanding discourse. Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Turkish Linguistics. 303-313.
Zeyrek, D., Turan Ü. D., Bozşahin C., Çakıcı R., Çallı A. B. S., Demirşahin Işın, et al. (2009).  Annotating Subordinators in the Turkish Discourse Bank. ACL-IJCNLP, Linguistic Annotation Workshop III. 44–48.
Zeyrek, D. (2009).  Türkçe İşaretleme Çalışması [Turkish Corpus Annotation] . 23. Ulusal Dilbilim Kurultayı Bildirileri. 78-88.

Zeyrek, D., Turan Ü. D., & Demirşahin Işın (2008).  Structural and presuppositional connectives in Turkish. (Benz, A., Kühnlein, P., Stede, M., Ed.).Constraints in Discourse 3. pp. 131-137.

Zeyrek, D., Demirşahin Işın, & Çallı A. B. S. (2008).  ODTÜ Metin Düzeyinde İşaretlenmiş Derlem Projesi Tanıtımı. Mersin Üniversitesi Sempozyumu Bildirileri. 544-553.
Zeyrek, D., & Webber B. (2008).  A Discourse Resource for Turkish: Annotating Discourse Connectives in the METU Corpus. The 6th Workshop on Asian Language Resources, The Third International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing, (IJNLP). 65-71.
Group Members: 

Cem Bozşahin, Ayışığı Başak Sevdik Çallı, Işın Demirşahin , Ümit Deniz Turan, Ruken Çakıcı